What Is Big Data ? – Characteristics Of Big Data

Big Data

Big Data is a rapidly expanding field that takes into account ways to effectively analyze,
access, and manage large data sets which are either too complex or large to be managed by
standard data processing software.

Big Data has the potential to dramatically increase business
value in all industries. In this fast-moving world, time is of the essence and business needs
demand timely results. Big Data analytics is very crucial.

The term “big data” is usually associated with large, structured data, though some use the term
“big data” to describe any unstructured data. Examples include satellite images, stock footage, and video footage. Often companies will buy “big data” to aid research; for example, they may
need to analyze large amounts of weather data to forecast climate changes. A company that
specializes in big data will have the requisite expertise and the tools required to deal with the
myriad of possibilities.

What exactly is big Data?

Big data refers to huge volumes of data so complicated and vast that they can’t be processed by humans or conventional systems for managing data. When properly analyzed with modern technology, these massive quantities of data offer businesses the information they require to make educated decisions.

Recent advances in software have allowed us to access and analyze large data sets.Much of the information gathered by users is meaningless and insignificant to the human eye. However, big data analytics tools can monitor the relationships between various types and sources of data in order to provide valuable business intelligence.

Big data sets possess three distinct properties, referred to by”the three V’s :

Big Data
Big Data
  • Big data sets need to contain millions of low-density, unstructured data points. Companies that utilize big data may store anything from a few terabytes up in size to large amounts of petabytes worth of user data. The rise of cloud computing has given companies access to huge amounts of data! All data is saved , regardless of the importance. Experts in big data believe that in some cases, the answers to business-related questions may be found in unanticipated data.
  • Velocity is the rapid generation and use of massive data. Big data is collected analysed, then interpreted, and finally analyzed quickly to give the most recent findings. Some big data platforms store and interpret information in real-time.
  • Variation The big data sets include diverse types of data in the same database that is unstructured. Traditional data management systems employ structured relational databases that have certain types of data that have set relations to other types of data. Big data analytics applications make use of various kinds of unstructured information to discover all the correlations between different types of data. Big data methods usually provide an improved understanding of how all factors are closely related.

Correlation vs. Causation

Big data analysis merely finds connections between variables, but not causality. Also, it will determine if two events are connected, but it can’t determine if one is the cause of the other.

It’s the responsibility of analysts of data to determine which data relations are actionable and which are simply random correlations.

Big Data History

The idea of Big Data has been around from the 1960s to the 70s However, in the early days, there weren’t the tools to collect and store that amount of data.

Practically big data only began to take off in 2005, when developers from companies like YouTube and Facebook were aware of the volume of data they generated during their day-to-day activities.

In the same way, the introduction of new frameworks for advanced computing and storage systems such as Hadoop as well as NoSQL databases enabled data scientists to analyze and store more massive datasets than they ever have before. Frameworks that are open-source such as Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark made the ideal platform to allow large data to expand.

Big data continues to grow, and more companies are recognizing the benefits of predictive analysis. Modern big data techniques rely on technology like the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing techniques to store more data from all over the globe and use machine learning to create more precise models.

Although it’s difficult to know what the next step in big data will bring it’s evident that the use of big data is going to grow more effective and efficient.

What exactly is Big Data used for?

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Big Data

Big Data applications are beneficial throughout the world of business and not only in tech. Here are some examples that make use of Big Data:

  • The process of making product decisions is based on big Data is utilized by companies such as Netflix or Amazon to create products based on the upcoming trends in the market. They may use information from previous product performance to predict what items customers will be looking for before they decide to purchase it. They can also utilize price data to figure out the best price for selling most efficiently to their prospective clients.
  • Testing: The big data is able to examine millions of bugs, specifications for hardware as well as sensor readings and the history of changes to detect failure points in the system prior to when they happen. This can help maintenance teams avoid the issue and also reduces system downtime.
  • Marketing: Marketers collect massive amounts of data from prior marketing campaigns to improve future advertisements. By combining data from retailers and online ads Big data can be used to refine strategies by detecting subtle differences in ads that are associated with specific images or colors, as well as word selection.
  • The medical profession: Doctors utilize large amounts of data to identify adverse effects of drugs and identify early warning signs of illnesses. As an example, suppose you have a new disease that strikes people rapidly but without prior warning. However, the majority of patients had headaches on their last checkup. This could be an obvious correlation with big data analysis , but it could be overlooked in the eyes of the average person due to the differences in the time and place.
  • Customer Experience Big data is utilized by product teams following an launch to gauge the experience of customers and product reception. Big data systems are able to analyze huge data sets from social media posts as well as online reviews and comments on product videos to gain a better understanding of the issues customers face and how the product is being received.
  • Machine learning Big data has emerged as an essential component of artificial intelligence and machine learning technologiesbecause it has an enormous amount of data that can be tapped into. ML engineers make use of huge data sets as diverse training data to create more precise and robust predictive systems.

How does Big Data work?

Big data on its own won’t give the business intelligence that so many companies are seeking. It’s necessary to analyze the data prior to being able to offer actionable insights.

This procedure involves three main stages:

1. Data flow intake

The first stage is a data stream entering the system in massive volumes. It is of a variety of kinds and cannot be put into any useful schema. This stage of data is known as a data lake since all data is mixed together and difficult to separate.

The system you use for your business must be equipped with the processing power and storage capacity to manage this amount of data. On-premise storage is the safest but could be overwhelmed based on the amount of data.

Storage distribution and cloud computing are frequently the keys to effective flow intake. They permit you to split storage between different databases in the system.

2. Analysis of data

In the next step, you’ll require an automated system to clean and arrange data. Data of this size and frequency is too big to manage manually.

Some popular methods include setting rules that eliminate any invalid data or creating in-memory analytics which continuously adds new data to the ongoing analysis. In essence, this is similar to taking a stack of documents and organizing the documents until they are filed in a systematic manner.

In this phase, you’ll be able to see the basic findings but have no idea how to do them. For instance, a ride-sharing service might find that over 50% of customers would cancel a ride when the driver who is incoming delayed for more than one minute.

3. Data-driven decision making

At the end of the process, you’ll be able to interpret the findings in order to formulate an idea of what you want to do with them. Your role as a data scientist is to review all findings and develop an evidence-based suggestion for improving the company’s performance.

In the case of ride-sharing, it is possible to choose to dispatch drivers to routes that allow them to keep moving even if they take extra time to ease customer discontent. In contrast, you might choose to offer a reward for users to sit for the delivery of the driver.

One of these choices is valid as your huge data analysis is unable to determine what element of this interaction is required to be changed to increase the satisfaction of customers.

Big Data
Big Data

Big Data terminology

Structured Data:

The data is pre-defined with a structure that makes it simple to find and analyze. The data is supported by an established model that defines the dimensions of each field’s length, type as well as the limitations on the value it can hold. A good instance of structured information is “units produced each day” in that each entry is defined by product type and the number of fields.

Unstructured Data:

This is in contrast to structured data. It isn’t a defined organizational property or definition of conceptual. Unstructured data is the majority of the big data. Examples of unstructured data include social media posts or phone call transcripts or even videos.


A well-organized collection of information that could contain unstructured or structured data. Databases are designed to enhance the effectiveness of data access. There are two kinds of databases of types: non-relational and relational.

Database management system:

When we talk about databases like MySQL and PostgreSQL in general, we are speaking about a particular system, referred to as”DBMS. A DBMS is a program to create, maintain and delete various individual databases. It offers the necessary peripheral services and interfaces to the user to communicate with databases.

Relational Database (SQL):

Relational databases are comprised of structured data that is stored in rows within tables. The columns in a table are based on the schema of a table that defines the nature and size of information that a table column may contain. Imagine schema as the blueprint for every row or record of the table. Databases that are relational must contain structured data, and the records must be linked to one another.

For instance, a Reddit-like website would make use of an open-source database for the data’s logical structure would be that users can access the option of following forums. Forums also contain a list of posts and the posts include an archive of the comments that have been posted. The most popular implementations are Oracle, DB2, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, and MySQL.

Non-relational Database:

Non-relational databases are not governed by a strict schema and have unstructured data. The data inside has no logical connection to the other data within the database and is organized in different ways based on the requirements of the business. Common types are key-value storage (Redis, Amazon Dynamo DB) as well as column storage (HBase, Cassandra), document stores (Mongo DB, Couchbase), graph databases (Neo4J) as well as the search engine (Solr, ElasticSearch, Splunk). A majority of the big data is stored in non-relational databases since they can contain multiple types of information.

Data Lake:

A data repository that is which is kept in the raw form. As with water, all data is mixed and the collection data cannot be used until it is separate from the lake. The data lake does not need to be used for a specific function but it is not yet. The data lake is kept for the possibility of being later discovered.

Data Warehouse:

A storage space for structured and filtered data that has specific goals. In essence, it is the equivalent of a data lake.

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