Microplastics – are in your blood. And we know that because researchers have recently discovered a small percentage of plastic particles that flow into our bloodstream for the first time.
Previous research has found that we inhale and swallow small pieces of plastics that are large enough to form a credit card each week. But until now, scientists did not know whether such particles got into the bloodstream.
those particles were found in the blood of more than a third of donors (17 out of 22) based in the Netherlands who participated in the study. Of course, knowing that there are plastics in the blood of most people leads to many questions that researchers have to deal with.
Balancing toxic chemicals in human tissues is critical to ensuring levels of exposure and driving measures to protect public health. Human health risk assessment (HRA) contamination of plastic particles is not possible due to a lack of data on both toxic hazards and human exposure.
Measurement of plastic particle exposure is important to the HRA, however, proven methods are sensitive enough to detect trace amounts of small particles (<10 µm) of plastic particle size in deficient biological tissues.
‘Microplastics’ is the name of a plastic particle whose meaning is not established worldwide. In the literature, microplastic is generally defined as plastic particles up to 5 mm in diameter with the exception of the minimum specified size ‘Nano plastic’ is the name of plastic particles in a small submicron diameter, <1 μm.
In the field of nanotechnology, ‘nano plastic’ may refer to particles of engineering less than 100 nm, i.e. the size limit of the nanotechnology application. To avoid misunderstandings of the names of microplastic and nano plastic particles in this article we will refer to ‘plastic particles’ and where appropriate define the size or width of the size.
Our study focused on those particles that can be absorbed throughout the membrane of the human body. Our method of operation refers to particles that can be stored in a filter with a hole size of 700 nm, i.e. particles ≥700 nm in diameter. The inner diameter of the needle used for venipuncture (0.514 mm) can be considered as the maximum particle size limit for this possible method.
#.Contamination of plastic particles
Analysis studies around the world have established a large database of the emergence of plastic particles in various matrices including e.g. biota (or intestinal content) (, sediment, and food In general, such data reflect the ubiquitous nature of plastic particles and raise the question of how humans are exposed to such particles, and whether exposure leads to degradation within the human body.
Human excrement was previously analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which provides evidence that small-size plastic particles can be excreted through the intestinal tract. three polypropylene particles between 5 and 10 µm in the human placenta
#.The place of blood
Blood as a chamber makes up 6-7% of body weight in humans. It irritates the organs and is a way of transporting oxygen, nutrients, and plastic particles around the body to other tissues and organs. The final finish of the plastic particles depends on whether they can be removed e.g. renal or biliary excision, or implantation of the liver, spleen, or other organs through fenestrated capillaries and sinusoids.
Particle size, shape, surface chemistry, and charger control its interaction with biological systems, including the formation of protein corona in particles The role of blood as a means of transport is associated with the possibility of direct sampling of the body, without contact with plastic materials. , makes it an ideal matrix for human testing of plastic particles and current research.
The level of mixing within the whole blood is considered to be high in healthy people, where the impurities are distributed in different phases (water, lipid, protein) throughout the circulatory system. Minimum levels of contamination measured in venous blood samples are considered an indication of the whole bloodstream, including the microvascular system.
Considering capillaries are usually only 5-8 µm wide, this limits the size of the particles that can be expected in the rotation of these tiny particles, and any existing particles can contribute to microvascular fluid dynamics. In well-mixed blood vessels, or in well-mixed blood samples, there are many open-ended questions about how plastic particles of different sizes can be distributed.
Some may be embedded in body cells, while others may be attached to proteins, lipid particles, other plastic particles, or vascular endothelium. Although the concentration of weight in a given sample may be noticeable, the particles may be agglomerated, or the number of particles themselves may be present in the dilute concentration in the matrix. This provides an opportunity to see the missing results and be identified in duplicate samples, especially in small volumes of sampling samples. However, there are both ethical and practical reasons for small volumes of blood samples.
Because of the variety of distortions and non-plastic particles that may be present in a given blood sample, it is important to develop methods that can validate both polymer types and the concentrations available. In the advanced field of air pollution and human hazard testing (HRA), particle concentration ≤2.5 µm or ≤10 µm is the sum of the particle particles collected by means of sample defined operation, calculated, and then the concentration of weight per unit of air volume reported.
Another way to measure plastic particles in the emerging field of plastic particles is that the HRA is based on the concentration of large quantities of polymers from plastic that exists as particles, such as PM10 for example.
#.Methods of analysis
Many publications report an abundance of particles identified as plastic with spectroscopy techniques such as attenuated total reflection-FTIR and µFTIR (Veerasingam et al. 2020), as well as Raman or Raman Radiated (SRS).
Particle images provide information about particle size. Fully classification of particles according to particle size, shape, chemistry, local charging, climate level, protein corona in a given matrix are all legal parameters that can strengthen our understanding and HRA process.
However, in the real world, matriculation methods are still being developed and measurement of all such parameters at once is a matter for the future. Promising methods include the use of the methods listed above but also e.g. flight time ion mass spectrometry and photoinduced microscopy were forced, inter alia, to detect very small particles, requiring sensitivity and selectivity for low and very small particles expected in biological matrix.
There is no one-size-fits-all approach, so a combination of methods will be required to capture all possible information. Meanwhile, expanding laboratories are testing techniques based on thermal desorption mass spectrometry to identify and quantify the number of individual polymers by sample particle calculation techniques and the cutting of a number of useful polymers, compliant methods. While we wait for alternatives to achieve technological readiness, which is expected to take a few years, we can already build data sets so that people are exposed to high-density plastic particles, such as air pollution data-based object sets.
The current study focuses on the development of a method of analysis and measurement of human blood to detect and measure the quantity of five high-volume polymers used in plastic materials: poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polypropylene (PP), materials containing polymerized styrene (PS). ), polyethylene (PE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET).
These polymers have applications in food communications, textiles, and a wide range of other products that people encounter on a daily basis. PE and PP are the most sought after in the world, followed by PET and polymers containing styrenes such as polystyrene, expanded polystyrene (EPS), and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (PlasticsEurope 2020).
PMMA has a very low production volume in the test set, although it is selected because it is used in various applications within the human body, such as in dental work. In the present study, the emphasis is on method development and validation, using a wide range of blank spaces and other quality control measures to achieve adequate sensitivity and prevent false positives.
The analyzes developed, validated, and used here measure the concentration of polymer weight in the sample (not the number of particles) using pyrolysis double shot – gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC / MS). This semi-quantitative process measures the thermal degradation products of plastic particles present in the samples (i.e. harmful analysis).
#.Studies in mice show microplastics entering the cerebral cortex
A large portion of the millions of metric tons of plastic waste that flows into the sea each year is broken down into smaller pieces by the ocean’s energy, and researchers are beginning to put together what this means for predators. Korean scientists have focused their attention on the food chain by examining the threat these particles make to the brains of mammals, where they have been found to act as toxic substances.
In recent years, research has revealed that a type of microplastics threatens marine life. This has included weakening the attachment of the muscles, impairing the cognitive ability of hermit crabs, and causing aneurysms and reproductive changes in fish.
They have emerged from the intestines of sea turtles all over the world, and have been found in seal poos as evidence of their rising chain. Studies have also shown that they can change the shape of a person’s lung cells.
To further our understanding of these risks, researchers at the Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology orally administered polystyrene microplastics by two micrometers in size or smaller in mice within seven days. Like humans, mice have a blood-brain barrier that prevents many foreign substances, and especially solids, from entering the organ, but scientists find that microplastic was able to pass.
From left: Drs. Seong-Kyoon Choi, Dr. Sung Jun Lee, Dr. Wookbong Kwon and researcher Daehwan Ki from Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology
Once in the brain, scientists discovered that particles made up of microglial cells are not the key to the healthy maintenance of the central nervous system and that this has had a profound effect on their ability to expand. This was because microglial cells perceive plastic particles as a threat, causing changes in their morphology and eventually leading to apoptosis, or planned cell death.
In addition, scientists have performed tests on human microglial cells and detected changes in their morphology, as well as changes in immune function by altering the expression of appropriate genes, antibodies associated with microRNAs. As seen in the rat brain, this is also a symptom of apoptosis.